Resources for American Literary Study 26.1 (2000) 75-89 // --> [Access article in PDF] Tempest in Black and White: The 1924 Premiere of Eugene O'Neill's All God's Chillun Got Wings Glenda Frank Fashion Institute of Technology All God's Chillun Got Wings is the third and last play in which Eugene O'Neill featured a black protagonist. With each new drama, by selecting a different aspect of the black experience in America, he widened the discourse, which opened new areas for public dialogue about race. In All God's Chillun Got Wings, he was successful far beyond his expectations, but the controversy became too heated even for O'Neill. The drama, which today is still rarely produced, 1 immediately earned a significant niche in American theater history as a reagent of social attitudes, like the Astor Place riots. Months before the premiere, the black and white communities were alive with debate. The metadrama was created by inflammatory newspaper accounts and back-room meetings. The arguments were repeated in government offices and churches, in living rooms and at community gatherings. It affected the lives of hundreds of people who not only never saw the play, but never read the script. The story exists today in scattered biographical reminiscences, letters, and interviews, as well as biased and unbiased news articles. In fact, the controversy over the play received such coverage that the total bill for the clipping service exceeded the cost of the play's sets (Duberman 59). Disquieted whites contended that the subject matter--interracial marriage--coupled with realistic casting could only create public unrest. The black community, troubled by job discrimination, social restrictions, and retaliatory violence, believed that the \"wrong\" image would endanger all its members. For decades, African Americans had been a screen on which white America projected its fantasies and taboos while often, as in the minstrel shows, forbidding the black community an actual presence. O'Neill's attempt to calm the tempest only roiled the waters.
I would beg, however, with the Doctor'spermission, to add my plea for the Colored Girls ofthe South:--that large, bright, promising fatallybeautiful class that stand shivering Page 25like a delicate plantlet before the fury oftempestuous elements, so full of promise andpossibilities, yet so sure of destruction; often withouta father to whom they dare apply the loving term,often without a stronger brother to espouse theircause and defend their honor with his life's blood; inthe midst of pitfalls and snares, waylaid by the lowerclasses of white men, with no shelter, no protectionnearer than the great blue vault above, which halfconceals and half reveals the one Care-Taker theyknow so little of. Oh, save them, help them, shield,train, develop, teach, inspire them! Snatch them, inGod's name, as brands from the burning! There ismaterial in them well worth your while, the hope ingerm of a staunch, helpful, regenerating womanhoodon which, primarily, rests the foundation stones of ourfuture as a race.
The colored woman of to-day occupies, one may say, a unique position in this country. In a period of itself transitional and unsettled, her status seems one of the least ascertainable and definitive of all the forces which make for our civilization. She is confronted by both a woman question and a race problem, and is as yet an unknown or an unacknowledged factor in both. While the women of the white race can with calm assurance enter upon the work they feel by nature appointed to do, while their men give loyal support and appreciative countenance to their efforts, recognizing in most avenues of usefulness the propriety and the need of woman's distinctiveco-operation, the colored woman too often Page 135finds herself hampered and shamed by a less liberal sentiment and a more conservative attitude on the part of those for whose opinion she cares most. That this is not universally true I am glad to admit. There are to be found both intensely conservative white men and exceedingly liberal colored men. But asfar as my experience goes the average man ofour race is less frequently ready to admit theactual need among the sturdier forces of theworld for woman's help or influence. That great social and economic questions await her interference, that she could throw any light on problems of national import, that her intermeddling could improve the management of school systems, or elevate the tone of public institutions, or humanize and sanctify the far reaching influence of prisons and reformatories and improve the treatment of lunatics and imbeciles,--that she has a word worth hearing on mooted questions in political economy, that she could contribute a suggestion on the relations of labor and capital, or offer a thought on honest money and honorable trade, I fear the majority of \"Americans of the colored variety\" are not yet prepared to concede. It may be that they do not yet see these questions in their right perspective, being absorbed Page 136in the immediate needs of their ownpolitical complications. A good deal dependson where we put the emphasis in this world;and our men are not perhaps to blame if theysee everything colored by the light of thoseagitations in the midst of which they live andmove and have their being. The part theyhave had to play in American history duringthe last twenty-five or thirty years has tendedrather to exaggerate the importance of merepolitical advantage, as well as to set a fictitiousvaluation on those able to secure suchadvantage. It is the astute politician, themanager who can gain preferment for himselfand his favorites, the demagogue known tostand in with the powers at the White Houseand consulted on the bestowal of governmentplums, whom we set in high places and denominategreat. It is they who receive thehosannas of the multitude and are regardedas leaders of the people. The thinker and thedoer, the man who solves the problem by enrichinghis country with an invention worththousands or by a thought inestimable andprecious is given neither bread nor a stone.He is too often left to die in obscurity andneglect even if spared in his life the bitternessof fanatical jealousies and detraction.
A certain litany of the time reads: \"From Page 158the fury of the Jutes, Good Lord deliver us.\"\"Elgiva, the wife of one of their kings,\" saysa chronicler of the time, \"they hamstrungand subjected to the death she deserved;\" andtheir heroes are frequently represented astearing out the heart of their human victimand eating it while it still quivered with life.
Do you believe that the God of history oftenchooses the weak things of earth to confoundthe mighty, and that the Negro race in Americahas a veritable destiny in His eternal purposes,--then don't spend your time discussingthe 'Negro Problem' amid the clouds of yourfine havanna, ensconced in your friend's well-cushioned arm-chair and with your patentleather boot-tips elevated to the opposite Page 300mantel. Do those poor \"coward's in theSouth\" need a leader--then get up and leadthem! Let go your purse-strings and beginto live your creed. Or is it your modicum oftruth that God hath made of one blood allnations of the earth; and that all interestswhich specialize and contract the broad, liberal,cosmopolitan idea of universal brotherhoodand equality are narrow and pernicious,then treat that truth as true. Don't inveighagainst lines of longitude drawn by otherswhen at the same time you are applying yourgenius to devising lines of latitude which areneither race lines, nor character lines, nor intelligencelines--but certain social-appearancecirclets assorting your \"universal brotherhood\"by shapes of noses and texture of hair. Ifyou object to imaginary lines--don't drawthem! Leave only the real lines of nature andcharacter. And so whatever the vision, therevelation, the idea, vouchsafed you,                         Think it truly and thy thoughts shall the soul's famine feed.                         Speak it truly and each word of thine shall be a fruitful seed;                         Live it truly and thy life shall be a grand and holy creed!
Lastly, you gain a Fly speed of 20ft while in this state. While using this feature, you must be aloft. If your feet touch the ground after the first round this feature is active, you immediately lose the tether to your fury and this ability ends. You may use this feature once per long rest.
At 12th level, you lose the ability 'Aloft'. Instead, you gain a fly speed equal to 15 feet indefinitely. Additionally, whenever you enter your fury state, your Fly speed is now 60 feet. You must be conscious to use this speed, thus you will fall if knocked unconscious.
At 20th level, when you enter into a fury state you may act as though you have casted Call Lightning as an 6th-level spell. You may spend a 1st level spell slot to increase it to 7th, 2nd level spell slot to increase it to 8th and a 3rd level spell slot to increase it to 9th. You also do not need to concentrate to maintain the duration of the spell.
In Seventh Son, Jeff Bridges plays Master Gregory, a gruff knight who has spent centuries protecting the ancient world from malicious supernatural forces. When the most powerful witch he has ever imprisoned, Mother Malkin (Julianne Moore), returns to unleash her fury upon the land, Gregory must hurry and train young Tom Ward (Ben Barnes) - the seventh son of a seventh son - so that he may fulfill his destiny: become humanity's new defender against the many dangerous creatures, sorceresses and specters waiting to strike. 59ce067264